For this blogpost I am looking at structures. In the book Visual Grammar, structure is described in multiple way such as the abstract structure, formal structure, informal structure and the structural skeleton. Structure is the way objects are placed and their relationship with each other, and they have a recognizable pattern in them.

Comparing the different structures we can learn that abstract structure is where there is no visible structure lines, Formal structure is when objects are composed evenly and informal structure is when their is no regulation in the composed arrangement.
Some other structures explained by the book is visual distribution, where your eye is judging the position, which is probably a structure we use more daily without noticing. The book also shows us that a structure can be gradient and change size or form in an even rate, as well as being a formed structure that are placed around a common center which is called radiation. Another interesting structure is the invisible/inactive structure, where the lines of the structure are invisible but laid out in a way so that our brain continues to read it anyway.

It’s interesting to look at different structures because I feel like we are exposed to it everyday without even realizing it. The way we do certain things and the way things around us are laid out.
When looking around and reading about structure online I found Grid structure to be interesting, since it could be something very helpful when working on different layouts. At Google books ( we can read in the book Presentation Zen Design, on page 226, how a grid can be a helpful tool when putting objects together and create a more clear and clean structure. The book also mentions how you can still play with abstract and interesting structures, and by doing that still using the grid it can be easier to have the objects and elements look professional and as if they belong together, without it being boring. It also talks about how it is used as a tool for harmony, a base, similar to how musicians work with a grid that helps the creator but invisible for the listener/viewer.


An example of a radiation, a shell. We can see how it has a center that the form is placed from (the middle part) and are then surrounding it.


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Here we can see a few examples on how the structure look different but still works. The upper left is informal, and the upper right is probably formal as well as the lower left. The lower left are using a grid to help knowing where to put the objects. The lower right looks like an example on a gradient structure.


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Here is another picturing of how a grid can help with design and the structure. Using the boxes that are laid out in a structure a designer can used them when deciding where to put the text to make it look structured.


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Here is a good example of an invisible structure, as well as radiant and gradient. The lines are centered in one place, and they become smaller and smaller the closer in they come. The lines are also going outside of our views, but we still read the lines closing a circle.


Abstract Objects

For this week we are looking at abstract objects, which is explained in the book Visual Grammar as a shape that we can´t create physically. Following pages in the book, written by Christian Leborg, then goes on exploring these concept using line, surface, point, dimensions and format etc. Something I found fascinating is how they all seem to follow a similar pattern. Starting with a point, that´s not actually a point but a surface. A line is multiple points put together in a row etc. A surface can be two lines that are lined up so that they don´t coincide with each other, or as three points that are not lined up. As we look at these it is interesting to see how it all seems to start, or involve, a single point or surface which then are build on to create something more.
One thing that really caught my attention when reading in this book is dimensions. It states that an object can have two dimensions as well as three, four or an infinite number. I am used to work more with two dimensional, and sometimes I use three dimensions, so even thinking about four dimensions is fascinating and even more so with infinite numbers of dimension.

The meaning of the word abstract is, according to the site (, a non-material object, and it stands for something being detached. Usually it would be that something is not a part of reality, and when talking about abstract objects this means that the objects do not represent the reality. So we can then understand how there are some form of objects that is shaped using the point, lines, surfaces etc, in a way that is created by mankind and are therefore not a representation of reality. When looking at these objects, then, we can acknowledge interesting compositions and forms used without the need to figure out what it is. We might want to find something that it relates to, but I believe abstract objects helps us with creativity and imaginagion.


On the left side we have only one dot, called point. In the middle we can see how multiple points are lined up in a row, creating a line. On the right side there are three points that together creates a surface.

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Here are three examples of a two dimensional abstract objects, with the use of both surface and lines etc. We can see how they are playing with the different shapes and forms, without really showing any reality.



Here we can see another example of an abstract object, where it is playing a lot with lines, points and surface. It is using more than the two dimensional, compared to the picture above, it looks like there´s even more than three dimensions.



An abstract object that is a “real life” object. It is also using surface and volume in three dimensions.

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